sexta-feira, 7 de outubro de 2011

[Tutorial] Modelar um edificio em 3DS Max Design (1º Parte, Inglês)

Este tutorial apresenta uma forma muito simples e eficaz de modelar um edificio em 3ds Max Design.

Começemos pela 1ª parte do Tutorial



In part 1 of this tutorial I will show you how I modeled a building in 3ds max as it gives you the tools to model quickly without perfect accuracy but those aren’t necessary in the design stage. This tutorial focuses on translating an idea or sketch into a model. Part 2 will consist of lighting, texturing and rendering the scene including the use of ambient occlusion.


Creating a box

Go to the create panel, select geometry -> standard primitives -> box.
Fill in the dimensions and press “create” this wil create the box on the origin.

Convert to editable poly

Now you have a large box, right click it and go to convert to -> editable poly. This will give us the ability to edit the individual polygons and vertices.

Selecting vertices

While you have the large box selected go to the modify panel (1). Select the dots (2), this means you can select individual vertices. Now select the 2 vertices like show on the screenshot (3). Now RIGHT click the move button, this will give you a dialog. Change the Z value from 500 cm to 850 cm (5). 

Deleting polygons

Select the bottom and the closest polygon through the edit poly menu and delete them (delete key). 

The result should look something like this. 

Creating the ground

Next go to the create panel and click box, fill in the values as seen on the screenshot and press create. This will create a box of the same footprint as our building and on the same origin, this will become our floor/ground. 


Now you have created a box that fits perfectly as the ground. 

Convert to editable poly

Convert the floor box to an editable poly and select the front edge. 

Extruding polygons

In the edit poly menu select the extrude (dialog) button. 

Extrusion values

Fill in an extrusion height of 450 cm with a local normal extrusion type. This will become our outside platform. 

Repeat extrusion

Now select the side edges and repeat the command but with an extrusion of 50 cm. This will be the width of our walls. 

Shell modifier

Select the main building editable poly and in the modifier menu select “shell”.

Shell values

Use a value of 50 cm outer amount. This will give the building a certain thickness and make our wall openings realistic. This isn’t always the perfect solution to create walls but it is sufficient for a visualization that doesn’t require perfect accuracy.

Change viewport

Now go to the front viewport. You can maximize a viewport by clicking in it and using the shortcut ALT+W, use this key to exit a maximized viewport. I have changed the color of the objects to make them more visible against the gray background. 

Drawing lines

Go to the create panel, select shapes and press the “line” button. Draw a line from the top of the building to the bottom. 

Array command

Now select the line and go to the tools menu and select array. This is a very good tool to create a repetition of an object. Because I want the spacing of the curtain wall to be about 150 cm. 

Array values

Make sure you press the box preview so you can see what the effect will be, I used 149cm in the x direction with a count of 8. 


In the top toolbar there is a button for snaps, right click it to set up the snaps and left click to activate it. I activated edge/segment snaps. 

Drawing lines

Now click one of the vertical lines, the blue icon indicates it snaps to the line and click on the next vertical line (use the shift key to keep rectangular angles). 

Moving the curtain wall

Now we’ve got the lines of our curtain wall but they are one the origin plane. Select them in the top view en just move them to the exact location. 

Edit spline modifier

Select all the lines and apply an edit spline modifier on them. 

Sweep modifier

Now on top of that modifier apply a sweep modifier. This will turn our lines into geometry. You can select steel shapes, corner profiles and stuff like that but I’m going to use a rectangular section that will resemble wood. To do this select built-in section : bar and in the parameters use a length of 18cm and width of 5 cm. 

Creating windows

To create the ceiling windows we will create a couple of boxes to carve out the openings. I arranged them so they follow the same lines as the curtain wall (the boxes are also +- 150 cm wide). You can choose where you put them and the size as long as they go completely through the roof. 


Now select the main building and go to the create panel, select geometry and compound objects from the dropdown. Now press the ProBoolean button and select “start picking” and click every box. 

Boolean result

The boxes have disapeared and created holes in the roof. 

Creating the entrance

I will go less in depth for the entrance and furniture because they are pretty basic polygon modeling objects. I created a box with about 20 segments and converted it to an editable poly, selected the 2 side polygons and extruded them so they reach the ground. 


Repeat the process to create the furniture. 

Convert to editable poly

Now create a box about halfway the entrance, this will become one of our doors. Convert it to an editable poly and select the front and back polygon. 


Now select the inset dialog button and use a value of 10 cm. Press ok and delete the newly created inner polygons. 

Selecting borders

Now under editable poly select the border button, this will give you the ability to select the borders. Select the two. 

Bridge command

Go to the bridge dialog button, this command will connect two borders. Remember this command because it can be very useful in architecture because you can define how borders connect (twist and stuff like that). 

Filling the door

Now create a box like on the screenshot, position it at the bottom. 

Array the box

Go back to the array command and use the preview to fill the door as you see fit. In this case I used 25 with a move of 7 cm in the Z direction. 


Now select all the components of the door and go to group on the toolbar and select group, this will make it easier to select the entire door. 


I have copied the door to the other side and rotated it a bit to create some dynamics, I also drew a box in the middle. 


The openings in the roof still look a bit computer generated with perfect angles. Convert the main building back to an editable poly, select the inner polygons of the windows and in the edit poly menu select “detach”. This will change those polygons into separate objects. 

Window detailing

Apply a shell modifier to the object with an outer amount of 5cm, then apply another edit poly modifier and select the bottom polygons and extrude them. 

Placing a camera

Now to create a camera just move your view inside the building and hit CTRL+C this will create a camera you won’t be able to move your view normally so hit P to go back to the normal perspective view. Now you’ve got the camera created you can move it around and change the properties ,I’ve selected a stock lens of 35mm. Now you’ve got a plain model of the scene, you’ll need proper lighting and textures to create a quality render. This first sections explained the basic modeling tools in 3ds max, I’ve focused more on dialog commands and less on eyeballing but it is possible to create boxes, extrude polygons… by dragging your cursor on the screen but this doesn’t give you any accuracy. In the next part we will look at lighting through the daylight system and sky portals, creating textures and applying them and finally rendering the scene. The part 2 source files will contain the model we created. 

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